Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Compare the representation of family relationships Essay Example For Students

Compare the representation of family relationships Essay This suggests that as a child, Hamlet may have greatly resented having to share his mother with his father, wanted undisputed priority in her life. This would then have led to repressed desires to sexually posses his mother, and ultimately eliminate his father. For Hamlet, his father has already been killed by the start of the play. However there is still no chance for him to be able to now take the coveted position in his mothers life that he desires. Adding insult to injury is the fact that it is now his own fathers brother who had married his mother and filled the void. It is easy to see how this twisted scenario would create a confused state of mind, even regardless of the Oedipus Complex. The incest that therefore penetrates this family is key to Hamlets frustration. He see the relationship between Claudius and Gertrude as incestuous, indeed the ghost of King Hamlet calls Claudius that incestuous, that adulterate beast. Hamlet is likely to feel a desire to avenge his fathers death, and possibly also jealousy towards Claudius. An interesting scene is Act 3 Scene 3 where the ghost appears to prevent Hamlet from causing further agony to his mother. Or is it possible that he appeared to prevent his son from taking his wife? This scene also serves to show us that Hamlet does indeed idolise his father. When talking to his mother he likens him to Hyperion, Mercury, and Mars, assigning him qualities of leadership, grace and the traits of a true warrior. To him, his father is Blasting his wholesome brother (line 66). This loyalty for his father partly fuels his need to kill Claudius but his enduring procrastination shows something is not allowing him to do it easily. Contrasted with Laertes, whose father has also been wrongfully murdered, we can see that he has no such delay in avenging his father. The telling difference may be that Laertes has no mother figure in his life. The reason could therefore be, that Hamlet may realise on a sub-conscious level that he actually needs Claudius in his mothers life to prevent his own incest with her. On another level, Laertes feels that to delay revenge would be to claim himself illegitimate. Unlike Hamlet he has no fears that he may be a bastard, a concept which consumes Hamlets mind. The issue of fatherhood in the play is also an important one Hamlets father is obviously an absent figure, but he still strives to be his son. Although all he has of his father is memories, he constantly tries to resurrect him with words and images. In the opening scenes it becomes clear that Claudius now comfortable sits in his brothers old position, in every sense except that which allows him to be a father to Hamlet. He attempts to push his way into Hamlets life in the beginning, saying But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son to which Hamlet sneers A little more than kin and less than kind. Hamlet needs to protect his father to assert his roots and masculinity, and therefore must kill this impostor father figure trying to replace him. This involves deciding between the two fathers, and this is not so easy for him as it would seem. King Hamlet is Hamlets link to an honourable, legitimate past. It is the only way he can find his place in the world with dignity. To fail to support his father would be accept Claudius and therefore the illegitimacy and deceit which come with him. .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .postImageUrl , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:hover , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:visited , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:active { border:0!important; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:active , .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue4c8a68450054f32f0a2eb5e2c59dcbf:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The themes of love and loss in the poems "My Last Duchess", "Shall I compare thee", "Let me not" and "Porphyria's Lover" EssayThe statement which Hamlet makes, father and mother is man and wife, man and wife is one flesh (Act 4, Scene 3, Lines 53-54) is quite telling of his fears of their sexual relationship, but perhaps he also recognises that at present Claudius fills this position of his mothers husband and must be given due respect. It is Hamlets blurred notions of female sexuality from which flow a central theme in the play. Janet Adelman discusses the concept that the maternal womb is contaminated by sexuality, and is a devouring and suffocating presence. The symbolism of an empty womb may be synonymous for Hamlet with sexual acts, and may also threaten to force him to return to it. Throughout the play Hamlet struggles to escape from the maternal influence. Gertrude herself is not actually portrayed as particularly wicked or powerful, but it is her inaction to prevent the chain of events spiralling from her husbands death which cause Hamlet to think of her as such. This causes more problems for the disturbed Hamlet as he feels that his own body has been sullied by his mothers actions. He fears the contamination will spread to him, and this causes his rash and panicked actions. He is sure that id female sexuality is polluted and incestuous, he can no longer be certain of who he is, and certainly whose son he is. This conception of the Bastard child corresponds to A Modest Proposal. The narrator created by Swift also accepts the problem of the bastard child and feels that it is easier to kill (and eat) the child rather than marry the parents. An idea very prominent in Hamlets own mind when he says To be or not to be, showing he has thoughts of ending his life. Swift seems to promote to some extent the usefulness of children with no certain father, but limits this at being able to kill and eat them more easily. He encourages males to have children by numerous partners, anticipating none of the problems which Hamlet is experiencing to arise in Ireland. A very relevant difference between A Modest Proposal and Hamlet is the class difference. Marriage is essential in the higher nobility, such as Hamlet is involved in, and although affairs were obviously commonplace, they were much little discussed. In the lower classes marriage was not so essential to status, as they had little to start with, and so it was often disregarded. However this seemed not to have made much difference to the actual happiness of either situation presented. Swift, like Shakespeare, blurs the roles of members within the family, and shows us the importance of every part, and relationship functioning. Swift also writes A Modest Proposal as a warning to the Irish lower classes to protect their own, and the shocking consequences which may occur if they ignore him.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

TOK Essay Summary Example For Students

TOK Essay Summary Symptomatic for how human beings convince themselves of the truth, the man resorts to the ultimate authority: himself. What he sees must be true. Unfortunately that source of knowledge is erroneous. To avoid the well-known limitations of our perception, illustrated by optical illusions, other factors influence ones senses, and their ability to tell the truth. Although such things as the Sixth sense and other intuitions have been argued to exist, the term, senses, has a physical root. As mentioned, emotions tend to color our perception of the world. Like alcohol, love affects the physical aspects of humans. We will write a custom essay on TOK Summary specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Besides serotonin,13 other hormones have increased activity in the brains perceptive judgment centers. In context to truth, it shows interpretations of observations can be distorted by perspective and other factors, such as emotions. Synthesis of information from any source without this tool of knowing is hard. How would it be possible to reason if necessary observations of premises cannot be made; to hear authoritative accounts; have emotional sensations without touch? It is relevant to ask if it is at all possible to know the truth; when no ways of knowing are impenetrable to error. Before jumping to conclusions, one could attempt to limit the spectrum where truth occurs: Truth is limited according to some given parameters. 14 These truth factors, however, better eliminate false statements than point out true ones: They filtrate less qualified guesses from better. The pragmatic theory is a down to earth approach where truth extends from reality: if something works in reality, then its true. This goes with the method of science: A hypothesis is established and tested under observation, thus mounting in a conclusive acceptance/rejection of the hypothesis validity. The theory gets support from such examples, since it is true that it works in reality. Nevertheless, its basis is inductive reasoning and perception, which are no guarantees of the truth. Peter could test the hypothesis that his wife committed adultery. In favor of the proposition, it coheres/corresponds to observations from reality: Phone-calls, noises, etc. Truth, however, doesnt follow logically. To claim so is invalid because the secret calls could be related to something else. 15 Truth is transparent. Knowledge isnt solely justified by factuality, because such is not entirely justifiable. 16 The gap between certainty and the hardly quantifiable reliability of a knowledge claim has to be compensated for by conviction/faith. 17 Peter, therefore, is left with different knowledge claims to be justified/rejected, and with the task of defining the truth-spectrum. In context to the prescribed question, the likeliness that a tool of knowing will deliver one the truth is in the end dependent on ones belief. It would be rather nice to conclude that the most likely way of knowing the truth is through perception, since people tend to put greater faith in own observations and seeing is believing, but tend is not finite. Truth is defined individually be assigning a belief to a truth subject. Hence the most likely way of knowing the truth is the one in which the belief is the greatest: most often that is perception. Even with untrue dogmatism, beliefs are flexible in the long- run, so one should keep challenging ways of knowing to move closer to truth. By the way, Peters wife was innocent. 1 This is similar to that implied by the prescribed question. 2 Socrates once said that it is in human nature to desire the truth. 3 This will be discussed later. 4 In fact, emotions can distort the other ways of acquiring knowledge. 5 In this book, Big Brother deliberately appeals to peoples emotions, in order to make them behave in a certain way. This is commonly known as propaganda. 6A psychologist would probably agree that we are slow to confront erroneous intuitions and get rid of them. 7 Reasoning can either be of an inductive or deductive nature. 8 I was once told this little story by my grandfather, a farmer, which is an excellent example in support of this idea: I had a herd of chickens cute little animals which had come to rely on that I would feed them at a certain time each day. .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .postImageUrl , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:hover , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:visited , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:active { border:0!important; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:active , .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88 .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua49b5b16407df962a19aef0f8ed8ca88:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: TOk essay may 2009 topic 3Foolish of them to think that certain: Because one day I came with an axe instead of feed. Dont blind yourself. 9 Whether it is right or not to follow dogmatism is another question that arises, when knowledge reliance goes to such an extreme. 10 This book was written by the Nigerian author, C. Achebe. It is about how inflexible beliefs can bring about the downfall of man. Another knowledge issue. 11 Incas, Moslems, Buddhists, Christians, etc. 12Archaeologist exposed as fraud. BBC News, 2000. 2 Jan. 2008 ;http://news. bbc.co. uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1008051. stm;. 13 Serotonin is often used in medicine as an anti-depressant hormone: It makes people look more optimistic at the world. Too much of it, however, is highly toxic same with emotions and perception. 14 Those parameters are summarized in Richard van de Lagemaats TOK for the IB Diploma (Lagemaat, Richard. Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ). They are divided into three theories: The correspondence-, coherence-, and pragmatic theory. 15 From what I have heard, she is planning a surprise birthday party for the man, who is turning 40. 16 At least as far as human intelligence can grasp. Many things are beyond human understanding, which, for me, invokes humility faced with the immense everything. 17 In the end truth is formed by beliefs.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Odile Decq, French Architect for the 21st Century

Odile Decq, French Architect for the 21st Century Odile Decq (born July 18, 1955, in Laval, east of Brittany in France) and Benoà ®t Cornette have been called architectures first rock and roll couple. Attired in Gothic black, Decqs nontraditional personal appearance fit well with the couples curious delight in architectural experimentation with space, metals, and glass. After Cornette was killed in a 1998 automobile accident, Decq continued their rebellious architecture and urban planning business. On her own, Decq continues to win awards and commissions, proving to the world that she was always an equal partner and a talent in her own right. Plus shes kept the funky look and black attire all these years. Decq earned a Diploma in Architecture from the Ecole dArchitecture de Paris-La Villette UP6 (1978) and a Diploma in Urbanism and Planning from Institut dÉtudes Politiques de Paris (1979). She practiced in Paris alone and then in 1985 in partnership with Benoà ®t Cornette. After Cornettes death, Decq ran Odile Decq Benoà ®t Cornette Architectes-Urbanistes (ODBC Architects) for the next 15 years, rebranding herself in 2013 as Studio Odile Decq. Since 1992, Decq has maintained a relationship with Ecole Spà ©ciale dArchitecture in Paris as a teacher and director. In 2014, Decq was not intimidated to launch a new school of architecture. Called Confluence Institute for Innovation and Creative Strategies in Architecture and located in Lyon, France, the architecture program is built around the intersection of five thematic fields: neurosciences, new technologies, social action, visual art, and physics. The Confluence program, melding old and new topics of study, is a curriculum by and for the 21st century. Confluence is also an urban development project of Lyon, France, where the rivers Rhone and Saone join. Above and beyond all of the architecture designed and built by Odile Decq, the Confluence Institute may become her legacy. Decq claims to have no particular influence or master, but she does appreciate architects and their works, including Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. She says ...they were inventing what they called the free plan, and I was interested in this idea and how you pass through a plan without having different articulated space.... Particular buildings that have influenced her thinking include Convent of La Tourette (Lyon France) by Le CorbusierLa Sagrada Familia (Barcelona, Spain) by Antoni Gaudà ­A concrete tower at the Jewish Museum (Berlin, Germany) by Daniel Libeskind Sometimes I am just impressed by buildings, and I am jealous about ideas expressed through these structures. Source of quotation: Odile Decq Interview, designboom, january 22, 2011 [Accessed July 14, 2013] Selected Architecture: 1990: Banque Populaire de lOuest (BPO) administration building, Rennes, France (ODBC)2004: L. Museum in Neuhaus, Austria2010: MACRO Museum of Contemporary Art, new wing, Rome, Italy2011: Phantom Restaurant, first restaurant in Garniers Paris Opà ©ra House2012: FRAC Bretagne, Museum for Contemporary Art, Les Fonds Rà ©gionaux dArt Contemporain (FRAC), Bretagne, France2015: Saint-Ange Residence, Seyssins, France2015: Confluence Institute School of Architecture, Lyon, France2016: Le Cargo, Paris In Her Own Words: I try to explain to young women that practicing architecture is really complicated and its very hard, but its possible. I discovered early on that to be an architect you have to have a little bit of talent and a maximum of determination and not focus on the complications.- A conversation with: Odile Decq, Architectural Record, June 2013,  © 2013 McGraw Hill Financial. All Rights Reserved. [Accessed July 9, 2013] Architecture, in a certain sense, is a war. Its a tough profession where you always have to fight. You have to have great stamina. I kept going because I started working as a team with Benoà ®t who helped, supported and pushed me to go my own way. He treated me as an equal, strengthened my own resolve to assert myself, follow my own inclination and be as I wanted to be. I also tell students and repeat at conferences that you need a good dose of recklessness to go down the road of architecture because if you are too aware of the difficulties the profession entails, you might never begin. You have to keep fighting but without really knowing what the fight is. Very often this recklessness is considered folly. Thats wrong; its pure recklessness – something that is socially acceptable for men, but not yet for women.- Interview with Odile Decq by Alessandra Orlandoni, The Plan Magazine, October 7 2005[theplan.it/J/index.php?optioncom_contentviewarticleid675%3Ainte%0Arvista-a-odile- decq-Itemid141langen accessed July 14, 2013] ...stay curious all your life. To discover, to think that the world is nourishing you, and not only architecture, but the world and society around you is nourishing you, so you have to be curious. You have to always be curious about what will happen in the world later, and to be hungry for life, and to enjoy even when its hard work....you have to be able to take risks. I want you to be courageous. I want you to have ideas, to take a position....- Odile Decq Interview, designboom, january 22, 2011 [Accessed July 14, 2013] Learn More: Odile Decq Benoà ®t Cornette by Clare Melhuish, Phaidon, 1998Architecture in France by Philip Jodidio, 2006 Additional Sources: Studio Odile Decq website at www.odiledecq.com/; RIBA International Fellows 2007 Citation, Odile Decq, RIBA website; Odile Decq Benoà ®t Cornette - ODBC : Architects by adrian welch / isabelle lomholt at e-architect; ODILE DECQ, BENOIT CORNETTE, Architectes, Urbanistes, Euran Global Culture Networks; Designer Bio, Beijing International Design Triennial 2011 [Websites accessed July 14, 2013]

Thursday, November 21, 2019

BIA_LAB7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

BIA_LAB7 - Essay Example The first step in developing a BCP plan is to carry out a business impact analysis (BIA). This will discover the companys most vital systems and processes and the cause at large on the business. Then do the following: File a series plan for the executive leader. Categorize backup employees to support the key emergency workforce. Guide backup employees to execute emergency responsibilities (FEMA, 2012). Work with at least two at each spot in your resources organization. Develop a comprehensive communication plan with top executives, and employees to be in touch with each other, customers, and the external world. Have an offsite crisis assembly place in the plan. Vary other means of communication in case the network and phone goes down. File the local emergency groups’ (police, and firefighters) call information in the plan. Attempt to form partnerships with the neighboring emergency responders to establish a good working association. (Company and site). Perform emergency exerci ses and drills. Employees and executives should practice emergency response basics. Assess your companys performance during each test, and work to constant progress (FEMA, 2012). Continuity workout may certainly reveal weaknesses if done accurately. Test your routine plan often to accommodate and reveal changes. Personnel, facilities, and technology are in a stable state of flux at any organization. When the unanticipated occurs from accidental down time to a major tragedy the information and unexpected variables is what always hinders a fast recovery (FEMA, 2012). Business Impact Analysis is the base for any business stability program within an organization (Gibson, 2011). A BIA is obligatory in the making of a business disaster recovery plan. It allows the administration to identify its organization’s most significant business and Information Technology (IT) activities.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

How to deal with the prostitution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How to deal with the prostitution - Essay Example One reason states pass laws is to prevent and/or punish activities that are harmful. Decriminalizing prostitution would, in essence, be saying that it does not cause harm, and so is a private matter and not one the state can or should intervene in. Prostitution does cause harm, though, to the prostitute and to society as a whole. Prostitutes are at risk for assault, rape and other violent crimes (reference), sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV and Hepatitis C) and posttraumatic stress. (Destiny's End). Societal costs are difficult to measure, but include the spread of disease and effects on families. Prostitution is also linked to sex trafficking, and a recent State Department brief said that prostitution, "fuel(s) the growth of modern-day slavery by providing a faade behind which traffickers for sexual exploitation operate." Regulating prostitution does not prevent the harm it causes. Proponents of regulation say that regulation will prevent the spread of disease, make for safer working conditions and reduce sex trafficking and child prostitution. (Raymond). Criminalizing prostitution does have a negative effect on prostitutes because prostitutes, not the pimps or the johns, are the ones who suffer.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Water Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 6

Water - Essay Example PepsiCo controls the largest share of about 44% of U.S water enhanced market. In 2010, the growth went up to about 85%. In addition, a small share doubled in 2011. Its marketing strategy is similar to the vitamin water. It distributes its products in Walmart stores only and targets nationwide grocery. Its promotion campaign was featured in a skin suit in 2012 sports. Its prices are of the lower range of $4 per 20 Oz bottle 2. Smartwater is a premium bottled water brand that is a product of Glaceau Company. The brand tries to appeal to health conscious consumers and who want sports beverage that is nutrient rich and has low calories content. The product is electrolyte enhanced, and this gives it a competitive advantage over the tap water. Its main competitors are its cross brands that give the company a huge gain in the market. Companys sales over the past five years have been increasing steadily. Its campaign is using popular celebrities. Its market share is estimated to have been 45% by the year 2000. The company managed to again approximately 20% awareness of its brand within a year 3. The coca cola company brands vitamin water as enhanced water. In the market, it is the leading enhanced water brand. Its major competitors are the SoBe life water and propel zero products. In 2008, the growth of vitamin water rose up to 8.3%. By the year 2012, the product experienced an annual growth of 12% in the market. The company is predicting huge sales exceeding nine billion dollars due to its large market. Vitamin water distributes its products in Walmart stores only and targets major nationwide grocery stores. Its promotion strategy is â€Å"meet your needs† campaign

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Jnanas in Meditation

The Jnanas in Meditation Concentration, the ability to detach oneself from the environment and the attainment of insight and later on Nirvana are the reasons why students enrol themselves in meditation classes. Because of these, any one teaching meditation should pay special attention in helping and guiding the student in attaining these goals. In this end, the jnana can be used by the teacher to enhance the student’s practice of meditation and lead the path to enlightenment and gaining inner peace. The Jnana: What is it all about? Jnana is a term that is used for most meditation practices, and can be found in other writings with varying spellings depending on the language being used. The term jnana that will be used in this module is from the Pali language. Other spellings of the word are gnana or gnaan in the Sanskrit language, or dhyana also in Sanskrit. Regardless of its spelling and language using it, the term is used to denote the presence of knowledge of an individual. This meaning is one of the most widely used in meditation centers based on various religious beliefs. The meaning of the word, which is knowledge, can vary depending on what context it is being used. Jnana and its context of knowledge revolves around an occurrence in the cognitive aspect of the individual where something is not just learned, but experienced by the individual. Because of this close association, the knowledge that the individual can gain from an event cannot be separated from his or her actual experience of it and it attached to the reality in which the meditator has experienced the learning. In some cases, it is also connected to a supreme being that is present in the material world (or the Mahesha-dhama) like Siva-Sakti. In Buddhist practices of meditation such as the Tibetan Buddhists, jnana is used to denote a state of awareness that is pure and free from conceptual disruptions and other forms of distractions. This is also used as a contradictory concept to vijnana, which is known as divided knowing. It is believed that when a meditator decides to practice and start practicing jnana and go through the Jnana or Bhimis, then that meditator may experience the presence of complete state of enlightenment and achievement of Nirvana. According to the venerable Mahasi Sayadaw, who is an authority in the Vipassana meditation in Buddhism, there are several nanas or knowledge as the person meditates. What the teacher must stress to his or her students is that these knowledge are to be experienced in stages chronologically. Also, it should be made clear that progression from one stage to another does not have a specific time frame since it can vary from being experienced for only a short period of time up to several years. The intensity in which these knowledge are experienced as also vary as well. The Jnana and Samadhi Aside from being used to gain knowledge related to the experience of things, the jnanas can also be used to refer to several states of Samadhi. This occurs when the meditator has learned to detach himself or herself from attributes of his or her mind in the quest to meditate better. When this detachment is attained, the mind of the meditator would become more stable and firm in the blocking of distractive thoughts and his or her ability to concentrate on the focus of the mediation will be improved greatly. Samadhi is the result of this increased concentration of the mind of the meditator practicing the jnana. As mentioned in the previous section, there are several levels of the jnana, and these levels can be applied in the practice of Samadhi as well. The term appana Samadhi is applied when the first to the fourth jnana are grouped together. This is especially true when the term is used by the disciples of the Buddha. The Use of the Jnana in Buddhist Traditions Jnana has been present in Buddhist literatures for a long time and it is mostly associated with any form of meditation. The first to the fourth stage of jnana are considered in the early Buddhist traditions as the right meditation. Because of this context in which it was used jnana has been associated mostly with the meaning it was given by the followers of the Buddha. In early Buddhist texts, it has also been found that the Buddha himself has engaged in the practice of the jnana as he was on his quest to find enlightenment. The practice of the jnana was used by the Buddha to this end because he learned that the meditation practices that he used were not particularly leading him to achieve the state of Nirvana. Prior to using the jnana, the Buddha has used other forms of meditation, but because these did not lead him to Nirvana, he became disillusioned. This has led him to recall a state of meditation he did when he was a child and followed it. In the Maha-Saccaka Sutta, it was mentioned that the Buddha has entered the first jnana and he called this the path to Awakening. If the Buddha himself did the jnana and used them in his quest for Nirvana, then the teacher must stress to students of meditation that indentifying and overcoming the obstacles to concentration is necessary before they are able to enter the stages of jnana. In the Upakkilesa Sutta, the Buddha was written to be saying that during the practice of meditation and the meditator starts doubting his or her capacity to carry on the meditation, the concentration would fall and the focus would be diverted. This is important to be avoided by the meditator through remaining diligent in keeping the focus of the meditation on the forefront of his or her mind and ensuring that attention is kept and not just the concentration. Because the Buddha has mentioned that the jnana is the path to achieve liberation and awakening, meditators should be encouragedto develop this as well if they are in the path to liberation and awakening as well. The Stages of the Jnana Pali has described all eight stages of the jnana in a progressive manner. Four of these eight stages are called rupa jnana or meditations or form, while the other four are called arupa jnana or the formless meditations. Rupa jnana is loosely translated to mean fine material jnana. The rupa jnanas are the stages of meditation in which the meditator experiences a deeper level of collectedness of thought and concentrarion. Moreover, each level of the rupa jnana have their intrinsic qualities which are derived from each other and can disappear. The first to fourth jnana are: The First Jnana. In this level of the jnana, the meditator experiences the presence of rapture, directed thoughts, pleasure, evaluation of thoughts, unification of the mind, mindfulness, presence of contact, feelings and perception, intention, consciousness, persistence, desire and attention. The Second Jnana. The second jnana is manifested by the presence of pleasure and rapture, unification of the mind, contact, perception and feeling, intention, desire and consciousness, persistence, decision and attention, equanimity and mindfulness. Also, in this level, there is the presence of internal assurance. The Third Jnana. This stage includes the feeling of equanimity-pleasure, contact, perception, feeling, intention, desire, consciousness, persistence, decision, mindfulness, attention and equanimity. The Fourth Jnana. The fourth level stage of the jnana is represented by the presence of an unconcern based on the presence of serenity of awareness; a feeling of equanimity, presence of unification of the mind and the other things that are experienced in the earlier stages of the jnana. Apart from the things occurring in each of the first to the fourth jnanas, there are qualities that remain specific to each stage. In the first jnana, there is the presence of subtlest forms of mental movement and the complete disappearance of the five hindrances. Moreover, intense and unified form of bliss remains and the person’s capacity to have unwholesome intentions stops. The second jnana is related to the cessation of all mental movements and the experience of bliss. In the third jnana, joy that is considered to be one half of the feeling of bliss disappears from the perception of the individual. And finally in the fourth jnana, happiness which is the other half of the feeling of bliss disappears and leading to the neutral feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. Also, it is said that this state renders the breathing of the person to temporarily cease. The arupa jnanas, of the formless meditation contains the other four stages of jnana. These states of the jnanas are written in literatures as formless or immaterial. This led this to be called as the Formless Dimensions in some translation and has helped in distinguishing it apart from the first four jnanas. Contrary to the other stages, these four are used to expand the presence of the concentration that is attained from the first to the fourth jnanas. Also, when the eight jnana has been attained, the meditator can experience enlightenment and complete dwelling in emptiness. The four jnanas in the arupa jnanas are: The Dimension of Infinite Space. In this dimension of the jnanas, the following qualities are removed from consciousness such as the singleness of the mind, perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space, attention, equanimity, decision, persistence, mindfulness, feeling, perception, contact, intention, desire, and consciousness. The Dimension of Infinite Consciousness. In this stage of the jnana, the following qualities of the mind of the meditator are eliminated like the perception of the dimension if the infinitude of consciousness, contact, feeling, unification of the mind, consciousness, intention, desire, perception, persistence, decision, attention, equanimity and mindfulness. The Dimension of Nothingness. In this dimension of the jnana, the perception of the dimension of nothingness, contact, the singleness of mind, perception, feelings, intention, desire, consciousness, decision, mindfulness, persistence, attention and equanimity are ferreted out from the mind of the meditator. The Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception. In this final stage and dimension of the jnanas, no qualities or characteristics of the mind of the meditator are to be ferreted out, instead, the individual experiences awakening. NOTE: The teacher would have to stress out to the student that although the two stages, the Dimension of Nothingness and the Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception are considered to be part of the jnanas that are described by the Buddha as part of the path to enlightenment, they are not part of the Noble Eightfold Path. This is because according to the Eightfold Path, the last is the Samma Samadhi or the Right Concentration. This is only part of the first to the fourth jnanas, and therefore considered to be just the start of attaining concentration. The teacher must therefore take his or her student through all the stages of the jnanas with the focus on the stage of having his or her perceptions and feelings cease to exist. E.The Nirodha-Samapatti In his path to attaining Nirvana the Buddha has made a discovery higher than the eight stage of the jnanas, or the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. This is called the nirodha-samapatti, or the cessation of feelings and perceptions, and is sometimes considered to be the ninth jnana. The Jnanas and the Attainment of Insight Buddhist texts present the thought that if a meditator was able to progress into the ninth stage of the jnana or the stage of the nirodha-samapatti after going through all the eight stages of the jnana, liberation is attained. The meditator uses the jnana in an effort to rest the mind and to sharpen and strengthen it in the process. When this happens, he or she will be able to focus the attention into finding out the true nature of the dhamma and go on the quest to higher forms of knowledge. In this way, it can be said that the more time the meditator stays in the state of jnana, his or her mind becomes more powerful and sharper as a result. Moreover, because the presence of the five hindrances are controlled or suppressed for an extended period of time after the meditator enters the jnana, he or she will be able to feel clearer, will be full of compassion, mindful, and experience the feeling light and peaceful after meditating. Despite this positive results that the jnana brings to meditators, teachers should warn their students that they should not mistake this or assume for this to be the stage of enlightenment. What the teacher has to the student is that the practice of jnana alone cannot lead him or her to enlightenment, but it can help him or her suppress the presence of defilements that disrupt meditation. The meditators should use the jnana as a tool to develop deeper sense of knowledge and as a means to cultivate their insight on things which can help them to attain Nirvana. In the Theravada Buddhist tradition commentary made in the Visuddhimagga, the meditato is usually found in the state of post-jnana access concentration after he or she comes out of the jnana. When in this state, the meditator would be able to carry out the analysis and investigation of the true nature of phenomena and how they begin, develop insight into the characteristic impermanence of things and of suffering and the non-self. These things can only be experienced by the meditator if he or she practices the core concepts of the Buddha’s teachings. If the Visuddhimagga has included that the practice of vipassana is done after the person emerges from the jnana, it is contradicted by what is written on the suttas. In these works, it is said that the meditator can practice vipassana and gain insight while in the jnana. In fact, it encourages the meditator to stay in the fourth jnana after entering it so that the presence of mental defilements are removed and uprooted before working to attain insight can be started. Mastery of the Jnanas A successful entry and attainment of the jnana cannot be achieved if the person would just progress from one state after the other only. This means that for the meditator to fully realize the jnanas, he or she would have to attain a mastery the present state he or her is doing first before wanting to go on to higher stages. This mastery will help the meditator to easily enter and leave the jnanas at will and experience them when he or she requires it. Another benefit of this is that it will avoid the confusion that can occur later on when the manifestations of a lower level of jnana shows itself in the higher states. The following aspects of jnana mastery should be included by the teacher in instructing and guiding as student meditator in to higher jnanas in the quest to attain insight, liberation and enlightenment. Mastery in adverting. In this aspect of mastery, the student meditator should be taught on how to advert certain factors of thejnanas especially when the meditator has just emerged from it. This, he or she should be able to do at will. Mastery in attaining. This aspect allows the meditator to quickly enter the jnana quickly. Mastery in resolving. This happens when the meditator is able to remain in the jnana for a certain period of time. Mastery in emerging. The mastery of emerging allows the meditator to emerge from a stage of jnana quickly and without any perceived difficulty. Mastery in reviewing. This occurs when there is an ability on the part of the meditator to review the jnana and other factors related to it while gaining knowledge in the process. References: Richard Shankman,The Experience of Samadhi an in depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation, Shambala publications 2008 Venerable Sujivo,Access and Fixed Concentration. Vipassana Tribune, Vol 4 No 2, July 1996, Buddhist Wisdom Centre, Malaysia. Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.ISBN 0-86171-331-1. Henepola Gunaratana,The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation. Pali CanonsAnguttara NikayaandDhammapada, by John T. Bullitt. Jhanas Advice: Information about the Jhanas from Tina Rasmussen and Stephen Snyder, authors ofPracticing The Jhanas: Traditional Concentration Meditation As Presented By The Venerable Pa Auk Sayadaw by Snyder, Stephen; Rasmussen, Tina. Shambhala: 2009.ISBN 978-1-59030-733-5 Jeffrey S, Brooks,The Fruits (Phala) of the Contemplative Life